##### Evidence

# List of Relevant Publications

## Cross-architecture tuning of silicon and SiGe-based quantum devices using machine learning, Nature Scientific Reports (2024)

The potential of Si and SiGe-based devices for the scaling of quantum circuits is tainted by device variability. Each device needs to be tuned to operation conditions and each device realisation requires a different tuning protocol. We demonstrate that it is possible to automate the tuning of a 4-gate Si FinFET, a 5-gate GeSi nanowire and a 7-gate Ge/SiGe heterostructure double quantum dot device from scratch with the same algorithm. We achieve tuning times of 30, 10, and 92 min, respectively. The algorithm also provides insight into the parameter space landscape for each of these devices, allowing for the characterization of the regions where double quantum dot regimes are found. These results show that overarching solutions for the tuning of quantum devices are enabled by machine learning. Read more...

## High-fidelity spin qubit operation and algorithmic initialization above 1 K, Nature (2024)

The encoding of qubits in semiconductor spin carriers has been recognized as a promising approach to a commercial quantum computer that can be lithographically produced and integrated at scale. However, the operation of the large number of qubits required for advantageous quantum applications will produce a thermal load exceeding the available cooling power of cryostats at millikelvin temperatures. As the scale-up accelerates, it becomes imperative to establish fault-tolerant operation above 1 K, at which the cooling power is orders of magnitude higher. Here we tune up and operate spin qubits in silicon above 1 K, with fidelities in the range required for fault-tolerant operations at these temperatures. We design an algorithmic initialization protocol to prepare a pure two-qubit state even when the thermal energy is substantially above the qubit energies and incorporate radiofrequency readout to achieve fidelities up to 99.34% for both readout and initialization. We also demonstrate single-qubit Clifford gate fidelities up to 99.85% and a two-qubit gate fidelity of 98.92%. These advances overcome the fundamental limitation that the thermal energy must be well below the qubit energies for the high-fidelity operation to be possible, surmounting a main obstacle in the pathway to scalable and fault-tolerant quantum computation. Read more...

## Fully autonomous tuning of a spin qubit, arXiv:2402.03931 (2024)

Spanning over two decades, the study of qubits in semiconductors for quantum computing has yielded significant breakthroughs. However, the development of large-scale semiconductor quantum circuits is still limited by challenges in efficiently tuning and operating these circuits. Identifying optimal operating conditions for these qubits is complex, involving the exploration of vast parameter spaces. This presents a real ‘needle in the haystack’ problem, which, until now, has resisted complete automation due to device variability and fabrication imperfections. In this study, we present the first fully autonomous tuning of a semiconductor qubit, from a grounded device to Rabi oscillations, a clear indication of successful qubit operation. We demonstrate this automation, achieved without human intervention, in a Ge/Si core/shell nanowire device. Our approach integrates deep learning, Bayesian optimization, and computer vision techniques. We expect this automation algorithm to apply to a wide range of semiconductor qubit devices, allowing for statistical studies of qubit quality metrics. As a demonstration of the potential of full automation, we characterise how the Rabi frequency and g-factor depend on barrier gate voltages for one of the qubits found by the algorithm. Twenty years after the initial demonstrations of spin qubit operation, this significant advancement is poised to finally catalyze the operation of large, previously unexplored quantum circuits. Read more...

## Data needs and challenges of quantum dot devices automation: Workshop report, arXiv:2312.14322 (2023)

Gate-defined quantum dots are a promising candidate system for realizing scalable, coupled qubit systems and serving as a fundamental building block for quantum computers. However, present-day quantum dot devices suffer from imperfections that must be accounted for, which hinders the characterization, tuning, and operation process. Moreover, with an increasing number of quantum dot qubits, the relevant parameter space grows sufficiently to make heuristic control infeasible. Thus, it is imperative that reliable and scalable autonomous tuning approaches are developed. This meeting report outlines current challenges in automating quantum dot device tuning and operation with a particular focus on datasets, benchmarking, and standardization. We also present insights and ideas put forward by the quantum dot community on how to overcome them. We aim to provide guidance and inspiration to researchers invested in automation efforts. Read more...